Toro-marika ho an’ny fizahan-tany sy ireo toeram-pikarohana ho fampihenana ny loza mety hateraky ny fifindran’ny COVID-19 amin’ny varika

Mba hampihenana ny loza mety ateraky ny fifindran’ ny COVID-19 amin’ireo varika, Drs. Thomas R. Gillespie, Patricia Wright, ary Jonah Ratsimbazafy dia manome antsika ireto toro-marika ireto ho an’ny fizahan-tany sy toeram-pikarohana eto Madagasikara.

Vakio eto ny bilaogy amin’ny teny Anglisy.

Ny fikambanana maneran-tany momba ny fahasalamana na ny OMS (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé) dia nampahafantatra ny fisian’ny hamehana ara-pahasalamam-bahoaka maneran-tany manoloana ny fisian’ny valanaretina manerana coronavirus na COVID-19 ary fantatra ankehitriny fa misy porofo ny fisian’io tsimokaretina io COVID-19 io eto Madagasikara1.

Eto am-pikarakarana ny hamehana ho an’ny fahasalamam-bahoaka isika ankehitriny, anefa tokony hahalala ihany koa isika fa mety ho tadidin-doza sy ho tratra io valanaretina manerana io ny varika eto Madagasikara.

Ireo “chimpanzés” dia fantatra fa nanana aretina azo avy amin’hasemporana rehefa nifindran’ireo coronavirus azon’ny olombelona2 ary tena ahiana ho azon’io tsimokaretina io covid-19 io ireo chimpanzés sy primates non humains toy ny varika. Ny fikarohana siantifika, ny fizahan-tany na écotourisme ary ireo mpisehatra ao anatin’ny fiarovana sy ny fitantanana ny valajava-boahary arovana dia manana fahahafana manazatra ireo primata dia na miaina anaty ala hifampikasoka amin’ny Olombelona ka hahazo ireo aretin’Olombelona.

Teo anatrehan’io loza mety hitranga io, dia nomena ny toro-marika mikasika ny hampiatona aloha ny fizahan-tany fitsidihana ireo varika ary ny mba hampihenana ireo asa fikarohana atao eo anivon’ireny ala fonenan’ny varika ireny.

Ireo toro-marika rehetra omen’ny UICN (Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature) ho an’ny fanaraha-maso ny fahasalaman’ireo gidro be3 dia natao indrindra ho fanoherana ireo fahafatesana misesy mahazo ireo gidro be izay matetika mety hifindran’ireo tsimokaretina mpahazo ny Olombelona mitarika hasemporana4-6 ary natao ihany koa ho fahafantarana tsara ny fahamoran’ny fifindran’ireo aretin’Olombelona amin’ireo gidro be ireo7;8. Soa fa azo atao tsara no mampihatra ireo toro-marika rehetra ireo ho an’ireo primata hafa ary tena zava-dehibe ny fanarahana izany eo anatrehan’izao valanaretina manerana covid-19 izao.

Toro-marika dimy ho fampihenana ny loza mety hateraky ny fifindran’ ny COVID-19 amin’ny varika

Ny fanarahana ireto toro-marika manaraka ireto any amin’ireo faritra fitsidihan’ireo mpizahan-tany sy ny toeram-pikarohana eto Madagasikara ho an’ireo mpiasa izay mbola manohy miditra any amin’ireo ala fonenan’ireo varika, mandritra izao valanaretina manerana izao, dia tena inoana fa hampihena betsaka ny mety hifindran’io tsimokaretina covid-19 io amin’ny varika na ireo tsimokaretina hafa izay mety ho hifindra tsinahy rehefa miditra any amin’ireny ala fonenan’ireny varika ireny isika. Ireto avy izany toro-marika izany:

Varikamavo ao amin’ny Parc national Marojejy- sary Lynne Venart

1. Marary ve ianao? Mijanonà any an-trano. 

Izay olona rehetra mety hiaran’ny fisehoan’aretina ireto (toy ny fisian’ny lelo, marary tenda, mikohaka na mafana hoditra) dia tsy tokony hiditra any amin’ireo ala fonenan’ireo varika.

2. Hatomboy ny fanadiovana isaky ny fitsidihana.

Ny olona izay miditra any amin’ny ala fonenan’ireo varika dia tokony hiakanjo madio. Ny kiraro dia tokony ho diovana ary ny tanana tokony sasana amin’ny rano sy savony alohan’ny hidirana any amin’ny ala fonenan’ireo varika sy rehefa mivoaka.

3. Hajao ny elanelana.

Tokony hisy elanelana 7 metatra amin’ireo varika sy ireo olona.

4. Manaova fiarovatava. 

Ireo olona rehetra izay manakaiky ireo varika, latsaka ny 10 metatra dia tokony manao ireny aro tava fanaon’ireny mpiasan’ny fahasalamana ireny.

5. Mahaiza mievina.

Raha toa misy olona tsy maintsy mievina na mikohaka eo akaikin’ireo varika, dia tokony hanaovana hatrany fiarotava, hiala ireo varika ary handrakotra ny vava  sy ny orona amin’ny sandry fa tsy amin’ny tanana na mievina ao anatin’ny akanjo.

Io valanaretina manerana covid-19 dia tokony ho raisintsika ho mety ho loza ho an’ny fahasalaman’ireo varika.

Ny tsy fisian’ny loza na ny risque zéro dia tsy misy velively ary ny fandraisana ireo fepetra fisorohana na ireo fepetra raisina ho famehezana ny aretina dia tsy hahafoana velively ireo loza mety hitranga. Izany indrindra no anton’ny hilazana fa hampihena ny loza ireo toro-marika ireo fa tsy hahafoana velively, ny mety hifindran’io aretina io amin’ireo varika akory. Na izany aza anefa, ny fanarahana sy fanantanterahina ireo toro-marika ireo dia tena hampihena betsaka ireo loza aterakin’ny asan’Olombelona amin’ireo fahasalaman’ireo varika ary io dia inoana ihany koa fa tena miendrika fahavononana sy risi-po ananana ho an’ny fiarovana ireo varika eto Madagasikara.

Loharano nanangonana ny lahatsoratra

1https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

2Patrono, L. V., Samuni, L., Corman, V. M., Nourifar, L., Röthemeier, C., et al. (2018). Human coronavirus OC43 outbreak in wild chimpanzees, Côte d´Ivoire, 2016. Emerging Microbes & Infections 7: 118. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41426-018-0121-2

3Gilardi, K.V., Gillespie, T.R., Leendertz, F.H., Macfie, E.J., Travis, D.A., Whittier, C.A., Williamson, E.A. (2015). Best Practice Guidelines for Health Monitoring and Disease Control in Great Ape Populations. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group. 56pp. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/SSC-OP-056.pdf

4Köndgen, S., Kühl, H., N’Goran, P.K., Walsh, P.D., Schenk, S. et al. (2008). Pandemic human viruses cause decline in endangered great apes. Current Biology 18: 260–264.

5Kaur, T., Singh, J., Tong, S., Humphrey, C., Clevenger, D. et al. (2008). Descriptive epidemiology of fatal respiratory outbreaks and detection of a human-related metapneumovirus in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park, western Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 70: 755–765.

6Palacios, G., Lowenstine, L.J., Cranfield, M.R., Gilardi, K.V., Spelman, L. et al. (2011). Human metapneumovirus infection in wild mountain gorillas, Rwanda. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17: 711–713.

7Rwego, I.B., Isabirye-Basuta, G., Gillespie, T.R. & Goldberg, T.L. (2008). Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 22: 1600–1607.

8Parsons, M.B., Travis, D., Lonsdorf, E.V., Lipende, I., Roellig, D.M., Collins, A., Kamenya, S., Zhang, H., Xiao, L. & Gillespie, T.R. (2015). Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9: e0003529.

Novokarin’i : 

Thomas R. Gillespie, PhD
Associate Professor, Emory University and Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, USA
Director of Infectious Disease Research, Centre Valbio, Ranomafana, Madagascar
thomas.gillespie@emory.edu
http://www.envs.emory.edu/faculty/GILLESPIE/Lab.html

Patricia C. Wright, PhD
Herrnstein Professor of Conservation Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
Founder and Executive Director, Centre ValBio, Ranomafana, Madagascar
patchapplewright@gmail.com
www.patwrightlab.net

Jonah Ratsimbazafy, PhD
President, Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP)
President-Elect, International Primatological Society
Co-Vice Chair – Madagascar section, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group
jonah@gerp-mg.org
www.gerp.mg